Electric vehicles (EVs) include cars, buses, trolleys, light-rail,
subways, and bicycles. Electric vehicles include cars that are charged
with current and vehicles that generate electricity or store electricity
in batteries to run. They have an electric motor that turns the
wheels and a battery to run the motor. As a result of the electric
motor being directly connected to the wheels, EVs will consume no
energy while the car is at rest or while coasting. Most electric
vehicles employ regenerative braking, which allows some of the kinetic
energy to be stored in the vehicle while decelerating. To accomplish
this, the motor is operated as a generator providing braking torque
to the wheels and recharging the traction batteries. This energy
can then be used for propulsion or to power vehicle accessories.
Electric cars have a range of about 35-195 km driving at a respectable
pace before you have to recharge the batteries. It takes from 8
to 10 hours to recharge the battery and that is generally done during
the night. In tests of the latest generations of electric vehicles
there is an upward trend in the average kilometers an electric vehicle
can be driven on a single charge from previous generations. Electric
vehicles use lead acid, nickel cadmium, or nickel metal hydride
batteries that power the motor. There has also been an annual improvement
in the performance capabilities of tested electric vehicles.
Many electric cars are being designed for urban driving because
they are very good in stop-and-go city driving and are easier to
park and drive than most typical cars. They produce no tailpipe
emissions and are more efficient than cars with gasoline engines
and require less maintenance. Most electric vehicles are regular
passenger vehicles that come in smaller packages that have top speeds
of about 95 km/h.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have batteries to provide electric
power and a small internal combustion engine usually powered by
gasoline. The batteries get recharged from the gasoline or diesel
engine. While braking, kinetic energy is converted into electricity
and then stored in the battery. The engine shuts down completely
at stoplights. HEVs have lower emissions and have twice the fuel
economy of conventional vehicles.
Research is currently being done to use fuel cells that create
electricity to power cars. Zero emissions would be produced throughout
the entire energy cycle.